Sharpshooters, Protesters, a Secret Prepare Journey

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The subsequent day, the departing president, Ulysses S. Grant, invited Hayes to the White Home and had him secretly sworn in without the nation knowing, forestalling any last-ditch effort by Tilden or the Democrats to reverse the result and guarding in opposition to any doable violence by aggrieved Southerners. The inauguration was later repeated for the general public, which didn’t know that Hayes had already taken the oath.

After Franklin D. Roosevelt gained an unprecedented fourth time period, he opted for a slimmed-down inauguration in deference to the sacrifices of a rustic preventing a world conflict overseas and enduring austerity measures at residence — and reflecting his personal failing power with lower than three months to stay.

Relatively than be sworn in on the Capitol, Roosevelt, his palms trembling and his voice weak, took the oath on the South Portico of the White Home earlier than a comparatively small crowd. The ceremony lasted solely quarter-hour. There was no inaugural parade, no gala ball, only a comparatively perfunctory luncheon. “Canine catchers have taken workplace with extra pomp and ceremony,” the president’s Secret Service chief observed.

Richard M. Nixon took the oath for the primary time in the midst of a really totally different overseas conflict, one with out the favored help at residence. Activists protesting the battle in Vietnam gathered at a number of key factors alongside the route of the inaugural parade whereas troops in uniform stood watch.

Focusing on Nixon’s passing limousine, the protesters threw rocks, sticks, bottles, cans, firecrackers, smoke bombs, forks, spoons, tomatoes, manure, burning miniature American flags and a paint-filled Christmas decoration. “Two, four, six, eight — organize to smash the state,” they chanted. At one level, protesters tossed a ball of tinfoil that was mistaken for a doable bomb, and Nixon’s driver abruptly sped as much as keep away from it, inflicting the presidential passengers a jolt.

Nixon, who stood up within the open automobile at occasions, was unhurt and took little public discover of the disruption as he went on to the remainder of a festive day. However the police arrested 81 individuals, and it was a bitter begin to a tumultuous tenure.